Stages

Clinical staging is used to describe how far cancer has spread. The following stages are used for testicular cancer:

Stage 0 (Testicular Intraepithelial Neoplasia or Testicular Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia): Abnormal cells are found in the tiny tubules where the sperm cells begin to develop. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. All tumor marker levels (levels of certain proteins in the blood) are normal.

Stage IA: Cancer is in the testicle and epididymis, and may have spread to the inner layer of the membrane surrounding the testicle. All tumor marker levels are normal.

Stage IB: Cancer is in the testicle and epididymis, and has spread to blood vessels or lymph nodes in the testicle, the outer layer of the membrane surrounding the testicle, or the spermatic cord or scrotum. All tumor marker levels are normal.

Stage IS: Cancer is found anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or the scrotum, and either all tumor markers are slightly above normal, or one or more tumor markers are moderately above normal.

Stage IIA: Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum, and has spread to up to five lymph nodes in the abdomen, none larger than two centimeters. All tumor markers are normal or slightly above normal.

Stage IIB: Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum, and has spread to up to five lymph nodes in the abdomen, at least one of which is between two and five centimeters, or has spread to more than five lymph nodes, none of which are larger than five centimeters. All tumor marker levels are normal or slightly above normal.

Stage IIC: Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum, and has spread to a lymph node in the abdomen that is larger than five centimeters. All tumor marker levels are normal or slightly above normal.

Stage IIIA: Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum, and may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen in addition to spreading to distant lymph nodes or to the lungs. Tumor marker levels may range from normal to slightly above normal.

Stage IIIB: Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum, and may have spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen, to distant lymph nodes, or to the lungs. The level of one or more tumor markers is moderately above normal.

Stage IIIC: Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum, and may have spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen, to distant lymph nodes, to the lungs, or to other parts of the body. The level of one or more tumor markers is high.